Mesenchymal stem cells, or MSCS, are multipotent stromal cells that can differentiate into a variety of cell types,including: osteoblasts (bone cells), chondrocytes (cartilage cells), and adipocytes (fat cells). Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are adult autologous stem cells found in the bone marrow.However, mesenchymal stem cells can also be isolated from other tissues including cord blood, peripheral blood, fallopian tube, and fetal liver and lung.
Mesenchymal stem cells are a distinct entity to the mesenchyme, embryonic connective tissue which is derived from the mesoderm and differentiates to form hematopoietic stem cells.Because of their multi-potent capabilities, mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) lineages have been used successfully in animal models to regenerate articular cartilage and in human models to regenerate bone.
Current treatment for cartilage damage in osteoarthritis focuses on surgical interventions such as arthroscopic debridement, microfracture, and cartilage grafting/transplant, total joint replacement. These procedures have complications than hoped, are invasive, and often entail a prolonged recovery time. MSCs can be harvested from the iliac crest through Bone Marrow Aspiration, expanded using the patient's own growth factors from platelet lysate, then successfully implanted to increase cartilage volume in an adult human knee. We present a review highlighting the developments in cellular and regenerative medicine in the arena mesenchymal stem cell therapy by successful harvest, expansion, and transplant of autologous mesenchymal stem cells into an adult human knee that repairs the cartilage, ligaments & meniscal damage & lubricate the joint space.